Generally, AFM is used to investigate the dispersion and aggregation of nanomaterials, in addition to their size, shape, sorption, and structure; three different scanning modes are available, including contact mode, non-contact mode, and intermittent sample contact mode [10,14,151–155]. AFM can also be used to characterize the interaction of nanomaterials with supported lipid bilayers in real time,which is not achievable with current electron microscopy (EM) techniques . In addition, AFM does not require oxide-free, electrically conductive surfaces for measurement, does not cause appreciable damage to many types of native surfaces, and it can measure up to the sub-nanometer scale in aqueous fluids [156,157]. However, a major drawback is the overestimation of the lateral dimensions of the samples due to the size of the cantilever [158,159]. Therefore, we have to provide much attention to avoid erroneous measurements . Furthermore, the choice of operating mode—no contact or contact—is a crucial factor in sample analysis .
Atomic Force Microscopy
- Jul 18, 2017 -