The physicochemical properties of nanoparticles are important for their behavior, bio-distribution,safety, and efficacy. Therefore, characterization of AgNPs is important in order to evaluate thefunctional aspects of the synthesized particles. Characterization is performed using a variety ofanalytical techniques, including UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transforminfrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic light scattering (DLS),scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Several qualified books and reviews have presented the principles and usage of various kinds of analytical techniques for the characterization of AgNPs; however, the basics of the important techniques used for the characterization of AgNPs are detailed below for ease of understanding. For example, characterization of AgNPs using various analytical techniques prepared from culture supernatant of Bacillus species was given in Figure 1.
gure 1. Characterization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) prepared from Bacillus species using
various analytical techniques. (A) Characterization of AgNPs by X-diffraction spectra of AgNPs; (B)
Fourier transform infrared spectra of AgNPs; (C) Measurement of size distribution of AgNPs by
dynamic light scattering; (D) Scanning electron microscopy images of AgNPs; (E). Transmission