Physicochemical characterization of prepared nanomaterials is an important factor for the analysis of biological activities using radiation scattering techniques [10,14,112]. DLS can probe the size distribution of small particles a scale ranging from submicron down to one nanometer in solution or suspension [10,14,113]. Dynamic light scattering is a method that depends on the interaction of lightInt. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1534 6 of 34 with particles. This method can be used for the measurement of narrow particle size distributions, especially in the range of 2–500 nm . Among the techniques for the characterization of nanoparticles, the most commonly used is DLS [114–116]. DLS measures the light scattered from a laser that passes through a colloid, and mostly relies on Rayleigh scattering from the suspended nanoparticles .
Next, the modulation of the scattered light intensity as a function of time is analyzed, and the
hydrodynamic size of particles can be determined [118–120]. To evaluate the toxic potential of any nanomaterial, its characterization in solution is essential . Therefore; DLS is mainly used to determine particle size and size distributions in aqueous or physiological solutions . The size obtained from DLS is usually larger than TEM, which may be due to the influence of Brownian motion.DLS is a nondestructive method used to obtain the average diameter of nanoparticles dispersed in liquids. It has the special advantage of probing a large quantity of particles simultaneously; however, it has a number of sample-specific limitations [101,121].