Metallic silver is widely used in our daily life as well as in various medical treatments, Silver Nanoparticle as a result of nanotechnology breakthroughs, silver nanoparticles (hereinafter called AGNPS) have gained greater benefits. But the growth of AGNPS applications in various fields inevitably leads to increased potential risk of nanoparticles, causing concern for environmental safety and human health. Silver Nanoparticle In recent years, researchers have assessed the toxicity of AGNPS and sought to explore their cellular and molecular toxicity mechanisms.
Nano-Materials Enter the biological system, with cells, organelles and macromolecules (such as protein, nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates) to establish a series of nanoparticles-biomolecules interface. The dynamic physical-chemical interaction, kinetics, and heat transfer in this interfacial area affect some processes, such as the formation of protein crowns, cell contact, membrane-encapsulated particles, Silver Nanoparticle cell uptake and biocatalysis, all of which determine the biocompatibility and biological hazards of nanomaterials.
Agnps once in the human body, some may remain in the original target tissue, but in principle they will be transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system, Silver Nanoparticle distributed to the body's secondary target organs, causing specific organs or systems to respond. In rodents, the brain, liver, spleen, kidney, and testis are the main secondary target organs of the whole body, regardless of whether oral, Silver Nanoparticle intravenous or intraperitoneal injections are given to Agnps. This pattern of organ distribution suggests that the potential toxicity of AGNPS can cause neurotoxicity, immune toxicity, nephrotoxicity and reproductive toxicity in vivo.
Cytotoxic reactions, such as reactive oxygen, DNA damage, changes in intracellular enzyme activity, and apoptosis and necrosis, have been associated with liver toxicity caused by Agnps in vivo. Basically, when the cells are facing unfavorable conditions,Silver Nanoparticle several steady-state processes will begin to sustain the survival of the cell, one of which is autophagy. Silver Nanoparticle Autophagy can be used as a critical cell defense process to counteract AGNPS toxicity, but it does not maintain autophagy activity, with reduced energy, and may promote apoptosis and subsequent liver damage.
There is growing evidence that the translation of post modifications, Silver Nanoparticle especially phosphorylation, acetylation, and ubiquitin, determines the activity and/or aggregation of proteins that perform autophagy and fine-tune autophagy development. Silver Nanoparticle The increase in cell stress can lead to the collapse of the modified system, or the nonspecific modification that does not occur under physiological conditions.
Ubiquitin has been regarded as the key to control the fate of proteins, which is the process of degrading the protein by protease. More recently, Silver Nanoparticle there is growing evidence that the conjugate ubiquitin chain determines the selectivity of autophagy.