Silver metal is widely used in our daily life and various medical treatments. Due to the breakthrough of nanotechnology, silver nanoparticles (hereinafter referred to as AgNPs) have gained more benefits. However, the growth of application of AgNPs in various fields inevitably leads to an increase in the potential risks of nanoscale particles, causing concerns about environmental safety and human health. In recent years, Silver Nanoparticle researchers have evaluated the toxic manifestations of AgNPs in an effort to explore their cellular and molecular toxicological mechanisms.
After entering the biological system, nanomaterials establish a series of nanoparticle-biomolecule interfaces with cells, subcellular organelles, and macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Dynamic physicochemical interactions, Silver Nanoparticle kinetics, and heat exchange at this interface region affect processes such as protein crowding, cell contact, plasma membrane entrapment, cell uptake, and biocatalysis, all of which determine the potential of nanomaterials Biocompatibility and biological harmfulness.
Once in the body, AgNPs may remain in the target tissue, but in principle they will be transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system and distributed to the body's secondary target organs, causing specific organ or systemic reactions. In rodents, regardless of oral, Silver Nanoparticle intravenous or intraperitoneal injection of AgNPs, it has been demonstrated that the brain, liver, spleen, kidney, and testis are major secondary target organs under systemic dissemination. This pattern of organ distribution suggests that the potential toxicity of AgNPs causes neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and reproductive toxicity in the body.
Cytotoxic reactions, Silver Nanoparticle such as reactive oxygen species, DNA damage, changes in intracellular enzyme activity, and apoptosis and necrosis, have been linked to the in vivo induced hepatotoxicity of AgNPs. Basically, when cells are at an unfavorable condition, Silver Nanoparticle several homeostatic processes will begin to maintain the survival of the cells, one of which is autophagy. Autophagy can serve as a cell defense process that is crucial to counteract the toxicity of AgNPs but does not maintain autophagic activity. With the decrease of energy, Silver Nanoparticle it may promote apoptosis and subsequent damage to liver function.
There is growing evidence that post-translational modifications, particularly phosphorylation, acetylation, and ubiquitination, determine the activity and / or aggregation of proteins involved in performing autophagy and fine-tuning the development of autophagy.Silver Nanoparticle Increases in cellular stress can lead to the breakdown of post-translational modification systems or to nonspecific modifications that do not occur under physiological conditions.
Ubiquitination has long been considered the key to controlling the fate of proteins. Silver Nanoparticle It is a process of labeling proteins for degradation by the proteasome. More recently, there is growing evidence that conjugated ubiquitin chains determine the selectivity of autophagy.